Inscrivez-vous à la newsletter

“A significant change in the character of warfare across multiple domains”

Mis en ligne le 13 Déc 2018

Parution le 25-10-2018 / Source : Union-IHEDN/Revue Défense

Jean-françois MOREL

Délégué général et Rédacteur en chefUNION-IHEDN, revue "Défense"Voir le profil

Avec cet article-entretien, le Commandant Allié Suprême en Europe de l’OTAN nous donne sa vision des changements en cours du contexte stratégique européen. Il aborde notamment les domaines de la posture des alliées face à l’affirmation stratégique de la Russie, de la relation entre l’OTAN et l’UE ou encore celui de l’interopérabilité au sein de l’Alliance et avec les partenaires de l’OTAN.


Les opinions exprimées dans cet article n’engagent pas le CSFRS.

Les références originales de ce texte sont : Jean-François Morel, « A significant change in the character ofwarfare across multiple domains », Interview with U.S. Army General Curtis M. Scaparrotti, Commander of European Commandand Supreme Allied Commander Europe, Revue Défense, n°194, Septembre-Octobre 2018 .

Ce texte, ainsi que d’autres publications peuvent être visionnés sur le site de l’Union-IHEDN :


Interview with U.S. Army General Curtis M. Scaparrotti, Commander of European Command and Supreme Allied Commander, Europe

 

How would  you  describe  the  change  in the European strategic environment in the last couple of years ?

Today, the Alliance is faced with a security environment that is more diverse, complex, fast moving and inter-connected than at any time since the end  of  the  Cold  War. The  rapidly  changing  and ever  evolving  security  environment,  including  a more  aggressive  Russia  and  a  persistent  violent extremist  threat,  has  resulted  in  an  increased need  for  adaptation  across  the  Alliance.  As  our primary  strategic  challenges,  Russia  and  violent extremists  cannot  be  considered  with  only  a crisis  management  philosophy.  We  now  have  to manage  crises,  stabilize,  and  defend  across  360 degrees.  As  a  result,  we  are  now  more  focused on honing those capabilities that will improve our collective defense and our ability to deter our adversaries. And  new  strategic  conditions  mean  we  have to  constantly  refine  our  approach  to  address evolving  threats  –  while  also  maintaining  agility and  flexibility  to  address  other  crises  –  which we  are  doing  with NATO  Command  Structure Adaptation that  was agreed  upon  during  the  Brussels Summit.

In 2014 in Warsaw, President Obama announced the European Reassurance Initiative (ERI) to reassure NATO allies  and partners. How has the plan materialized since this announcement?

 

Today, the Alliance is faced with a security environment that is more diverse, complex, fast moving and inter-connected than at any time since the end  of  the  Cold  War. The  rapidly  changing  and ever  evolving  security  environment,  including  a more  aggressive  Russia  and  a  persistent  violent extremist  threat,  has  resulted  in  an  increased need  for  adaptation  across  the  Alliance.  As  our primary  strategic  challenges,  Russia  and  violent extremists  cannot  be  considered  with  only  a crisis  management  philosophy.  We now have to manage crises, stabilize, and defend across 360 degrees. As a result, we are now more focused on honing those capabilities that will improve our collective defense and our ability to deter our adversaries. And  new  strategic  conditions  mean  we  have to  constantly  refine  our  approach  to  address evolving  threats  –  while  also  maintaining  agility and  flexibility  to  address  other  crises  –  which we  are  doing  with NATO  Command  Structure Adaptation that  was agreed  upon  during  the  Brussels Summit.

In 2014 in Warsaw, President Obama announced the European Reassurance Initiative (ERI) to reassure NATO allies and partners. How has the plan materialized since this announcement?

The European Deterrence Initiative (EDI), announced in 2014  as the European Reassurance Initiative (ERI), enables the United States to enhance the U.S. deterrence posture, increase  the readiness and responsiveness of U.S. forces in Europe, support the collective defense and security of NATO allies, and bolster the security and capacity of U.S. allies and partners.

Since 2015, the initiative has provided funding in support of five lines of effort: (1) Increased Presence, (2)  Exercises  and  Training,  (3)  Enhanced Prepositioning, (4) Improved Infrastructure, and (5) Building Partnership Capacity. The sum of all ERI lines of effort is greater than the five individual parts, when considering, for example, that increased rotational presence allows us to sustain more frequent allied and partner exercises and therefore build interoperability more rapidly.

The EDI allows U.S. European Command’s (USEUCOM), and its Service Components’, ability to respond to an evolving European security environment, to include, continuing to enhance our deterrent and defence posture throughout the theatre by positioning the right capabilities, in key locations, in order to respond to adversarial threats in a timely  manner.  This includes rotational forces across Eastern Europe as well as supporting enhanced Forward Presence.

The 2019 request continues to fund numerous ongoing, multi-year activities, as well as expanding    the existing lines of effort by prepositioning munitions in theatre; infrastructure improvements to support theatre logistics; and enhancements to the integrated air and missile defence system.

What  kind  of  posture  would  you  recommend with a more assertive – many would say threatening – Russia, in the High North, in the east and south-east of Europe ?

 

NATO  is  committed  to  open  dialogue  with  Russia; however, Russia’s destabilising and aggressive activities have highlighted a regime intent on seeking indirect confrontation with NATO in which information warfare is prioritised as a key line of effort. Because of this Russian aggression, NATO remains vigilant and ready to respond through a 360-degree approach. Over the past two years NATO’s posture has changed significantly including the development of the Very High Readiness Joint Task Force, a multinational brigade comprised of approximately 5,000 troops with up to five highly manoeuvrable battalions, with elements ready to move within 48-72 hours. This brigade is supported by air, maritime and Special Forces.

Also contributing to our posture is the Enhanced NATO Response Force, a highly flexible, multi-national force comprised of approximately 40,000 troops with maritime, air, land, cyber and special operations capabilities. Finally, NATO has multiple ongoing operations to enhance deterrence including enhanced air policing efforts and four multi-national battlegroups in Poland, Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia.

What are your concerns about the domains NATO allies should continue to modernize in relation to the current threats ?

 

NATO operates in a dynamic and ever-changing security environment which requires constant adaptation and enhancement of our capabilities. The Alliance is taking measures to modernize across multiple domains in line with the NATO Command Structure Adaptation initiative approved at the Brussels Summit.

There has been a significant change in the character of warfare across multiple domains and one such domain is cyberspace. Cyber-attacks present a clear challenge to the security of the Alliance and cyberspace defence is an integral part of our collective defence. In order to effectively combat cyber-attacks, NATO stood up the Cyberspace Operations Command. We also work with our member nations to enhance their own cyber defences within national networks.

Finally, our willingness to work with international bodies, such as the EU, bodes well for a secure global cyberspace. Logistics support within Europe continues to be a challenge. This requirement is being met with the Joint Support Enablement Command providing enhanced logistics capability to all NATO forces operating in Europe by ensuring rapid delivery of critical supplies anywhere they are required.

Recently, NATO worked with the European Commission on military transport within Europe. More generally, how has evolved NATO-EU cooperation?  Is the new European Defence Fund an opportunity from a NATO perspective?

 

Over the past two years, NATO and the EU have achieved an unprecedented level of cooperation. In the margins of the Brussels Summit, the NATO Secretary General and the Presidents of the European Council and the European Commission signed a new declaration on NATO-EU cooperation, demonstrating our desire to deepen cooperation. Going forward, we are stepping up our cooperation on military mobility, hybrid threats, and counter terrorism.

Today we are actively cooperating in Operation SEA GUARDIAN and EU Operation SOPHIA. We also cooperate closely in the Balkans, in the Aegean Sea, and in Afghanistan. The NATO-EU relationship is particularly important as we develop ‘comprehensive’ civil-military approaches to European crisis management. Building on our existing efforts, new areas of cooperation such as countering hybrid threats, energy security, and cyber defence, will provide additional opportunities for deepening this relationship.

The European Defence Fund provides for increased research and collaboration in the development of critical military capabilities. Programs which promote new and more efficient capabilities strengthens our collective ability to provide for security. A strong European Union and a strong NATO are mutually beneficial.

In your view, how does the U.S. contribute to the interoperability between NATO allies and partners?

 

The U.S. contributes to allied and partner interoperability through several initiatives. Within NATO, the U.S. leads the multi-national battlegroup in Poland where nearly 1,000 U.S. and Polish soldiers train together on a daily basis. The U.S. also trains with allied and partner nations in Afghanistan as the leading nation for Resolute Support Mission. Within the European Command scope, the U.S. has trained and exercised with both allied and partner nations consistently since 2013 through Operation Atlantic Resolve.

Operation Atlantic Resolve provides soldiers and equipment, including artillery, tanks and aircraft, to train with Allies and partner nations. This year alone, we’ve conducted 13 joint exercises in Europe in addition to a wide range of service-specific training and engagement. And in all that we do, we work alongside our allies and partners, our source of strength.


Rédigé par Jean-françois MOREL

Du même partenaire

Pensées Stratégiques et Prospectives

Quel futur pour la guerre dans l'Espace ?

Mis en ligne le 13 Jun 2019

Par Patrick BOUHET

Source : Union-IHEDN/Revue Défense

Pensées Stratégiques et Prospectives

Sociétés, Cultures, Savoirs

Pensées Stratégiques et Prospectives

Dernier article de(s) auteur(s)

Défense et Sécurité

Nos partenaires

 

afficher tout